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Thursday, March 22, 2018

Green-blooded skink - Prasinohaema virens (2018) By NVious Graphics [Nick Vasliou] And NeedAMFBeat Admin [Chris Gersic]/FXXX Beats

Green-blooded skink - Prasinohaema virens

The Prasinohaema virens also known as the Green-blooded skink,
in Greek Prasinohaema means “green blood”.
This unique green blooded scincid lizard species is native to New Guinea and the
Solomon islands. The species is poorly studied and
was discovered in 1881.
The blood of P. virens is
green, rather than the usual red coloration of all other amniotes,
and most other vertebrates. It wasn't until July 21, 2015 until we got a full assessment
of this Green tree skink, they have been assessed as “Least Concern” primarily  due to its
large distribution
in New Guinea and the Solomon islands, abundance, lack of major threats and likely presence in protected areas.
And current population trend is unchanged and stable.
The green blood pigmentation
results in a strikingly bright lime-green coloration of muscles, bones, tongue, and mucosal tissue,
and is the result of the accumulation of the bile pigment biliverdin in levels that would be toxic in all other vertebrates.
Biliverdin is formed from the breakdown of hemoglobin, and is normally converted to bilirubin.
However, mutation in various genes regulating bilirubin formation is believed to lead to the formation
and accumulation of high levels of biliverdin.
And is hypothesized that the lizard evolved to tolerate the toxic biliverdin
because it may provide protection against a group of parasites called Plasmodium. What is plasmodium?
It is a parasite that causes malaria in humans,
birds, and reptiles.
With the most recent research and studies
many believe that we can transplant those genes into bacteria and make a new medication
to help when someone has suffered serious physical trauma by allowing their body to cope with the higher levels of biliverdin.
That to me is more important than what drove the evolution. Bilirubin is toxic in mammals,
but most reptiles and birds don't make the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin.
An article (or a book chapter) published by Cowger in 1974 also suggested that the toxicity of biliverdin is much lower than that of bilirubin.

It might

be misleading to think of
the lizards bloodstream biliverdin as degraded hemoglobin
. It is possible that it’s being directly synthesized by their livers.
Most animals produce bile, so that your duodenum can knead quick squirts of it
into parcels of chyme as they leave your stomach. Bile is actually mostly made of cholesterol
(synthesized in the liver) plus bilirubin (brownish-reddish stuff, synthesized in the liver) and biliverdin
(greenish stuff, synthesized in the liver). The cholesterol and the
bile pigments work together like a
detergent to break up dietary fats into small droplets that can pass through the gut wall into your bloodstream.
Without bile you cannot digest fat at all.
Perhaps the lizard blood has bile-like properties
thanks to its bile-like levels of biliverdin?
The researchers could try checking the lizard's serum cholesterol level,
to see if the biliverdin is traveling with its usual bilious buddy. They could also look into whether
the environment these lizards prefer rewards them for having detergent for blood.

Scientific classification
Species:Prasinohaema virens

--- BY: Nick Vasiliou Co-authored by Need A MFing Beat? Admin/Emcee/Producer @
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