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Tuesday, March 22, 2016

The NeuroChemical Abnormalties in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) - Is There A Chemical Imbalance in BPD?







Borderline Personality Disorder, abbreviated as "BPD", is a common personality disorder affecting 5.9%  of Adults (Men and Women) - which adds up to about 14 million Americans. <!> Some estimates are up to 9%. ((!)) It is characterized by persistent impulsive, often self-degradative behavior, as well as as unstable relationships, mood fluctuation and poor tolerance to Stress - especially Social & Interpersonal / Familial Stress ~{!}~.  

Generally, Personality Disorders are not directly associated with any prominent 'chemical imbalance' nor is it the center of Research in regards to the disorder. However, in Recent years especially, MRI & PET studies have revealed specific neurochemical abnormalties in the brains of borderline-personality sufferers.


Some of those are...
  1. Increased Dopamine D(2) Receptors and / or Congenital Polymorphisms in DRD2S Genes. (1) (2). Evidenced also by Abilify-sensitive treatment of individuals with BPD..
  2. Increased Serotonin 5-HT(2)A Receptors/Signaling. [3] [4]
  3. Decreased NMDA Receptors/Function .:. This leads to the Cognitive Dysfunction in B.P.D & the chronic dissociative states during periods of intense Stress. It also is related differences in pain perception and sensory perception in general experienced by those with BPD. | 5 | 
  4. ANKK1 or PKK2 mutant gene / A1+ Allele. Genetically transferred, congenital abnormalty, not present in all subjects. / 6 \   / 7 \

And In Regards to levels of Certain Neurotransmitters ...
  1. Increased Glutamate / "Enhanced Release" of Glutamate in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of BPD Subjects ~*8*~
**FOUNDATION SOURCES**

https://books.google.com/books?id=bZuvBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA425&lpg=PA425&dq=ankk1+in+bpd+borderline+personality&source=bl&ots=K9MB2syCQ1&sig=DTxy4F2P7UAowJpsF_dycj9cLNw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjc4MHKyNXLAhVD4WMKHZHaBAoQ6AEIQDAF#v=onepage&q=ankk1%20in%20bpd%20borderline%20personality&f=false
https://www.google.ch/patents/US20130251635?hl=de&cl=en
http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/home/article/borderline-personality-disorder-is-a-heritable-brain-disease/3bc96d9e33065b76fd114fcd15566bde.html
http://www.nature.com/npp/journal/v29/n6/full/1300424a.html
http://www.dbtselfhelp.com/bpdfactssheet_.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1810584/
https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=140133
http://icahn.mssm.edu/static_files/MSSM/Files/Research/Programs/Mood%20and%20Personality%20Disorders%20Research%20Program/imaging_genetics.pdf
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/241572
https://drugs-forum.com/forum/showthread.php?t=3781048

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