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Tuesday, March 22, 2016

The NeuroChemical Abnormalties in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) - Is There A Chemical Imbalance in BPD?

Borderline Personality Disorder, abbreviated as "BPD", is a common personality disorder affecting 5.9%  of Adults (Men and Women) - which adds up to about 14 million Americans. <!> Some estimates are up to 9%. ((!)) It is characterized by persistent impulsive, often self-degradative behavior, as well as as unstable relationships, mood fluctuation and poor tolerance to Stress - especially Social & Interpersonal / Familial Stress ~{!}~.  

Generally, Personality Disorders are not directly associated with any prominent 'chemical imbalance' nor is it the center of Research in regards to the disorder. However, in Recent years especially, MRI & PET studies have revealed specific neurochemical abnormalties in the brains of borderline-personality sufferers.

Some of those are...
  1. Increased Dopamine D(2) Receptors and / or Congenital Polymorphisms in DRD2S Genes. (1) (2). Evidenced also by Abilify-sensitive treatment of individuals with BPD..
  2. Increased Serotonin 5-HT(2)A Receptors/Signaling. [3] [4]
  3. Decreased NMDA Receptors/Function .:. This leads to the Cognitive Dysfunction in B.P.D & the chronic dissociative states during periods of intense Stress. It also is related differences in pain perception and sensory perception in general experienced by those with BPD. | 5 | 
  4. ANKK1 or PKK2 mutant gene / A1+ Allele. Genetically transferred, congenital abnormalty, not present in all subjects. / 6 \   / 7 \

And In Regards to levels of Certain Neurotransmitters ...
  1. Increased Glutamate / "Enhanced Release" of Glutamate in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of BPD Subjects ~*8*~

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