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Sunday, April 29, 2018

Where Did The "Warrior-Gene" Come From? (Exploring MAO-Gene Repeats By Region/Population) Warrior-Gene Origin - Arabic, Maori, Hispanic/Latin, Roman or Viking Origins?

The Warrior Gene is a gene linked to better Risk-Assessment [1], and increased Risk-taking behavior as well [2] as, in some cases, increased Violence in response to Provocation [3]



...but Where did it come from? What gene line does it truly 'originate'?


NOTE for Clarity on Reference 4: Not looking purely at the PERCENTAGE of certain Ethnic backgrounds but the density and when controlled for other genomic differences - arrives at the Conclusions stated. 

Since the overwhelming majority of Warrior-Gene Carriers (in America) are Ethnically Hispanic (Latino/Latina) [4] or African [5] - one could suggest a common-place in origin that crosses over in both Countries. But estimates say this gene is pretty old - only certain forms of it, of course. This also does not take into consideration GLOBAL Ethnic Studies which actually show the Chinese and Maori are the most significant populations [6]. See study on Han Chinese and MAO-L gene here

Additionally, outside of America the Warrior-Gene is not especially prevalent in ALL Spanish/Iberian populations but does have a clear association with Violent behavior and abnormal Behavior in those of predominantly Spanish and Catalan Ancestry [!].

...But now let's use some logic, the Maori are NOT Mass-Migrating populations (generally) - the Chinese on the other hand are - but not every Family of each race who are principle ancestors of many Americans - had a Chinese partner at some point in the Family...but there may have been some with "other Asian" background [7] [8] [9]. Recent studies also Reflect this Admixture - although now to a Greater Extent. 

In addition - a further report stating that 1 in 200 Men of ALL Ethnic Background are related to the Great Mongolian Conqueror - Genghis Khan [10] provides indirect evidence that a Mongolian Origin could be responsible for disseminating this gene.


  • Mongolia DNA Databases such as this one have shown a high amount of "branching out" and Haplogroup Spread amongst practically all Nations.
  • Complex Research Studies on Genghis Khan and other Mongolian Descendants show further information justifying the use of the above in such a way.
Some of Genghis Khan's descendants settled in the Melanesia/Polynesia area [11]. Many Blogger's have brought up this aspect in further discussion (see here) (see here). His Y-DNA was also found in Northern European/Eurasian individuals [12]. Genealogy forums have frequently brought up the WorldWide Mongol influence on multiple Populations DNA.

In regards to Native Americans; its well-known they have significant genetic similarities with Asians in many cases (see study here).

Since Native Americans have been found with the Warrior-Gene variants in some cases - it can be a supporting reference for the possible Asian or Mongolian origin of the Gene.

...On the other hand, the concept of a "Warrior-Gene" was discussed in great detail by a Pakistani Journal of Medicine - and indicated with supporting references (inferences) that a Middle-Eastern origin could be more accurate. 

In order to head down that road though - we would have to ASSUME genetic relevance in Asia or at least mixed people of African or Hispanic descent - because of which there is NOT much Evidence for the Maori having significant Middle Eastern Y-haplogroups of relevance. However, Africans certainly share A LOT of DNA with those of Middle Eastern/Arabic Heritage [13].

Considering the Maori people, for example, were originally of Taiwanese/East Asian stock [see here] - an Asian Origin is most likely... but let's explore other theories just for the 'hell of it.

(BTW - Some great examples here and here regarding RECENT Aggressive Incidents with NEW ZEALAND folk (NEW MAORI). Also you simply CAN'T IGNORE the absolutely SAVAGE Maori WAR DANCES [see here].



EXPLORING A ROMAN-ORIGIN?

Yes, The Romans were great Conquerors and prolific rulers - credited with creating large and abundant societies - and branching out in endless bouts of Expansion [14] - however - even their DNA was DIVERSE and many Roman Emperors were of VERY different Ancestry [15].

Rome was thus a CENTRAL point and a Country defined by Migration; inward and outward. 

Thus - there is no such thing as "Roman" DNA in the traditional sense...even if most who are related to a FAIR degree of Roman Warriors or Emperors reside in Italy [16].

However...it is possible for us to see a correlation to the Roman Expansion and some Publications have suggested *something* that happened to the DNA of the people in Rome may have caused the Warrior-Gene type mutations [17].

Other Reviews also show genetic diversity among Rome but differ in Cross-Over results.


PROBLEMS WITH DEFINING "COUNTRY" OR POPULATION OF ORIGIN IN WARRIOR-GENE

The Major issue with trying define a Population or Ethnic Group responsible for spreading the Warrior-Gene is that it is ONLY passed down on the X-Chromosome [18].

The most convincing aspects of the Research indicate X-X and beyond mediated passing of the Warrior Gene MAO-Variants [19].

...That means purely a FEMALE-Line is essentially Responsible - but we don't know if the ORIGINAL passer is most definitely the Female Main descendant or which Female relative on which part of the X-Chromosome...or even HOW exactly the Mutation occurs and whether there are DEFINITE aspects that over-ride it...though it seems unlikely and most Papers cite that if the Mother possesses the Gene its pretty much guaranteed to pass-down to HER Children [20].

A FEMALE-VIKING Responsible for the Gene???

Vikings were prolific pro-creators; sometimes by Rape but most often NOT by Rape - and they did A LOT of co-mingling with other populations [21]

The Females were particularly notorious - mainly because other populations had never really seen a Female having such 'Masculine' traits and an even remotely COMPARABLE ability to handle Pain - which these Women were known for [22].

Its possible - that given the IMMUNE-SYSTEM differences between Men & Women [23] - that one or many Female Viking Warriors had an "adaptational" bodily-response (perhaps during injury) and that some Pathogen "knocked-out" the MAO-related Genes [24].

Since Finn's (people of Finland/Finnish descent) have nearly the LARGEST incidence of the Warrior-Gene among Whites [see here] and given the geographical proximity between Finland and the other Nordic Nations - it may lend some support to the FEMALE-Viking Origin Hypothesis of the Origin of the Warrior-Gene.

...Its all just a THEORY though. 

Probably not a very good one - because even though it gives a CAUSATIVE Explanation - it does not bode well with LARGE-SCALE studies...we aren't ALL descended from a FEMALE Scandinavian line [25].

Moreover, the Vikings (including Females) didn't have a particularly long Life Expectancy due to a particularly Stressful "Warrior-Lifestyle".



^ That Review also dives into the FACT that YES there is CROSS-OVER between ALL POPULATIONS at some point - it does not hit the consistency where EVERYONE has the DNA-Markers from each Population...quite obvious.

The Warrior-Gene thus is UNLIKELY to originate from Viking populations - even if they were the World's Greatest Warriors (I believe they were, but it is disputed) [22].

Other Stuff: One Blogger [see here] outlined some nice research showing that the people of Finland may also be (many of them) related to Mongolians - so this again seems to come back to the Asian-Origin of the Warrior-Gene.

Many Brits and Irish have "Viking" and Norman Ancestry [!] - so that could support the research that populations of Celtic Origin have a high incidence of Warrior-Gene among Whites.

Other Viking "Gene" studies seem to separate the DNA-research atypically and have connected other dots with regard to "Viking" and "Celtic" genes.

A LATIN/HISPANIC ORIGIN???

Even though Africans typically have DNA from the Middle East, and Hispanics often have African DNA - not all Hispanics have Middle Eastern/Arabic DNA and Asian DNA is sometimes and sometimes not [23].

Other Reviews on Ancient Origins of The Peoples of the Iberian Peninsula also have similar conclusions.

A Genetic Study on Americans of various Ethnic Groups shows similar diversity with high-amounts of Variability - also proving the conclusions here.

Moreover, "Iberian Peninsula" type DNA is NOT a Common Finding in a Majority of individuals of White-European Ancestry - however, the Ancient Irish DNA (and Irish are known for their "hot tempers") does seem to often ORIGINATE in Spain or other areas of the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal etc) [24].

Additionally, some Italians [25], Sicillians [26] and Calabrians [26] have been found to have Spanish/Iberian DNA.

Other Populations in Europe have varying degrees of Spanish DNA [27].

Perhaps most importantly - high Fertility rates are observed in Spanish Women [28] and historically have plentiful offspring [29] and they too - have always had elegant and Warrior-Like Characteristics [30].


The Above Review shows that Iberian Peninsula Haplogroups do have far-reaching Prevalence and in themselves are quite diverse. Yet, some aspects of their DNA may, like Italians have somewhat of a strong connection to the Roman Civilizations.

DIRECT EXAMPLES OF "WARRIOR" SPANISH NATURE

A Hispanic-Murderer who murdered a Man from New Mexico - his name was "Anthony Blaz Yepez" was a HUGE CASE for the Warrior-Gene hypothesis of Violent Crime - as he, like many others from specific South American heritage indeed had the Warrior-Gene; confirmed by SEVERAL tests [!].

Mexico has a particularly HIGH incidence of the Warrior-Gene [!] - the highest among all Hispanic/Latin Nations.

THING IS: They (Mexicans) also have strong admixture with African DNA representing a large degree of 'surprising' Ancestry results [!].

Then in the same paper - Native (Indian) populations contribute greatly to Mexican DNA.

INDIRECT EVIDENCE: No one can IGNORE the seemingly never-ending Violence in Mexico and Colombia by their Resident Drug-Trafficking and Weapon stockpiling organizations [!] they are particularly Violent and Ruthless - and many of their OWN MEMBERS have been found to possess the "Warrior-Gene" [see here].

OTHER STUFF SUPPORTING (MAYBE) A LATIN-ORIGIN FOR THE MAO-L GENE.

Going back to a MAIN CONCLUSION: Even though a SPANISH or LATIN Origin may EXPLAIN the relatively high incidence of Warrior-Gene carriers among IRISH/CELTIC populations [!] - technically some others (see here) - it does not actually explain the fact that the HIGHEST Incidence in Global Percentage is clearly Asian and Maori [!].

And the same argument for African high-incidence can explain density differences in Spanish Populations since some of those populations (Colombia, Mexico, Cuba) have more African DNA anyhow [!].

Besides, many Irish-peoples have other "abnormal" MAO-repeats [!] which have been (more clearly) associated with Mental Disorders (like ADHD) among the Irish.

Temperament-Studies also don't support a (comparatively) higher level of Aggression among Irish versus other European individuals - but do show higher rates of Neuroticism.

OTHER ITALIAN "ITALI" ORIGINS?

Adam Lanza - the famous American Mass Murderer responsible for the Sandy Hook School Shooting was also found to have significant Brain Volume Abnormalities and the "Warrior-Gene" - he too had Italian Ancestry.

In another landmark case, an Italian-man's sentence was reduced due to his finding that he had the  "Low-Activity" MAO-Variant - the "Warrior-Gene" [see here].

His name was "Stefania Albertani" - the name indicates Northern Italian Ancestry (at least Paternally) and has the largest density/frequency in Italy - followed by Latin Nations like Argentina, Cuba and Portugal [see here].

Problem is - we DON'T know - and now NEVER WILL - the FULL Ancestry of Mr.Albertani - and to ASSUME his Mother was FULL-ITALIAN would be beyond stupid!

...However - that does not DEMOLISH the Idea that an Italian-Origin COULD be at play since Italians currently populate virtually every region in Europe and particularly America - and more Africans than you'd like to think have an at least PARTLY Italian Ancestor somewhere on the line [!].

However...on the FLIP-SIDE, many Italians have a North-African Ancestry [!] where the MAO-Warrior Gene is ESPECIALLY prevalent [!].

Larger studies like this one on Italian-genetics show an exceptionally DIVERSE genome and Origin Diversity - some of which may lead back to Asia, in some cases.

Another study shows that Baboon's (Papio) who have their version of the MAO-repeat also exhibited similar Behavioral Characteristics to Humans that have it - ironically, the same Review attempted to place emphasis on African-populations (comparatively), a strategy that probably could have been modified a bit before Publication.


IRISH/CELTIC ORIGIN - EXPANDED

An "Irish Genome" Analysis [!] may have been the first opportunity to dive into the very unique Celtic DNA Legacy. 

The "Irish-Temper" is a VERY Real thing though [!], particularly among Young Irish Females [!] and thus it is NECESSARY to Explore a possible CELTIC Origin for the Warrior-Gene - although that would not explain the unprecedented Incidence among Maori, Finns or "other" European Ancestry, either.

Besides, English/U.K drivers actually had a higher incidence of "Road-Rage" and such [!] than Irish.

There is VERY little ACTUAL Supporting Research for an Irish-Origin to this Gene - and other "bad habits" associated with the Irish - like excessive Drinking, have been associated with other gene polymorphisms [!].

The predominant NeuroPsychiatric Symptom IN IRELAND and nearby is actually ANXIETY [!]. There is A LOT of Public Outcries and Rage [see here] but most of these are pretty reasonable in the circumstances referred.

Also - many Irish/Celtic folks have a gene that leads their body to absorb too much IRON [!] - that is the condition Genetic Hemochromatosis. Widely seen as a "Celtic Gene" and sometimes even a "Celtic Signature" among European Health Population Studies [!].

This IRON OVERLOAD can lead to "RAGE" and other symptoms of "neurotoxicity" and such which may be a more 'COMMON' accurate explanation for neurotic and Aggressive traits among the Irish [!].

Many Psychiatric-outpatients are found with Iron-overload; especially "treatment-resistant" ones [!].

ANOTHER POSSIBILITY: DUTCH SETTLERS - TO SOUTH AFRICA AND ELSEWHERE!!!

The "Warrior-Gene" was actually FIRST FOUND in a Dutch Population with unusually Aggressive Behavior [!].

Dutch were major settlers of this Unique part of Africa; South Africa - as are those of English descent.

Bradley Waldroup's Murder of His Wife's Friend was another famous Court Case where his Warrior-Gene was a key discussion [!]. The Waldroup Surname Origin might suggest an English Ancestry, for him.

...Though, other Papers suggest part (Maternal) Dutch/Germanic Ancestry as well for him. 

Then that may lend some indirect support for the "Dutch Origin" of the "Psycho-Gene".

The collection of cases related to this genetic phenomenon were all put into that same paper - Can Your Genes Make You Kill?

BALTIC/POLISH/RUSSIAN/SLAVIC ORIGIN?

Many Americans are at least in part, of Polish or other Slavic-Descent - but these groups aren't particularly known for being "more violent" than others and the MAO-L Warrior-Gene does not occur at a Great Frequency in Poland anyway [!].

Among Polish samples the Warrior-Gene is not only NOT in high-Frequency, that is, rarely found - but its usually HIGH-Activity Alleles (if any) found in many Polish - especially those with NeuroPsychiatric Disorders; such as Depression.

...That along with the fact that there is the LOWEST Amount of Genetic Similarities between Asian, African and Slavic Groups

In Aggressive individuals with Polish-Ancestry/Descent - that can be blamed on other "mutations" like Val158Met COMT [!].

Although - Russians do have a relatively HIGH-Frequency of MAO-L (3R/T) Gene's versus other Slavic Populations [!] [!!] [!!!] - this does not cross over into other populations as Russia is a UNIQUE DNA-group and there's NO WAY IN HELL that the MAORI, AFRICANS, ASIANS or even WHITES can all CLAIM Russian-Ancestry specifically.

Also - like with the Polish Samples - Russians are marked by significant Genetic Diversity and multiple varying Polymorphisms - which by nature of the occurrence of these mutations - shows that these are to be considered to a greater extent than MAO-A variants, in relation to Aggression among this Population/Ethnicity [!].

GeneCards also places considerable emphasis on the span of the Warrior-Gene and its 'travel pattern' (based on NIH-sponsored studies)

ROMANIAN ORIGIN???

Romanian Population studies often separate the 'traditional' Transylvanian Genome (Romanian) with Wallachian & Moldovan DNA - and hundreds of years ago (see Blog discussion here) - this population difference may have not been the same as it is now...due to more Migration and Diversity among these populations - which has introduced a LARGER Slavic Element than every before to these Nations (Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian etc).

Moreover - even though Romania had some pretty BRUTAL Rulers in the long-ago past - their Civilization - on the whole, then and Now doesn't really tell a Tale of Heightened Aggression - but maybe Heightened Senses & Enhanced Instincts/Powers of Perception [!].

Finally - most studies do not suggest an Eastern European Origin or even 'Transylvanian' Origin for the Warrior-Gene variants [!].

A JEWISH ORIGIN???

While Ancestry-related phrases like "European Jewish", "Ashkenazi Jewish" and "Sephardic Jewish" have made their way (Recently) into defining specific Jewish-population related Gene Mutants (contrasting to others) [!] - the MAO-Low Activity Variants are not (typically) the Genes set for Discussion in relation to Jewish Personality and Psychological Characteristics of Jews [!].

...And although there are certainly some cold-hearted Jews there is not really a TREND towards Violence among Jewish-populations or those with part-Jewish or Full-Jewish Ancestry in America.

Lastly, Africans and Asians who represent the Highest Frequencies of MAO-L Warrior-Gene besides the Maori peoples very RARELY have even MARGINAL amounts of Jewish DNA [!].

This does not make a convincing case for a Jewish Basis for Origin of The "Warrior-Gene".

There's also other aspects of Jewish-Biology that can explain PERCEIVED Behavioral Differences; such as Religion and Pharmacogenetics of Jewish individuals.

If you were to elucidate a CONNECTION of the "Warrior-Gene" in Jewish Populations - you should START with the FACT that MANY Jews have Middle Eastern DNA [!].

In those studies the "Near-East" Haplogroups often lead back to Middle Eastern Populations of significant Mongolian-Influence; leading again to a Mongolia-derived source/origin for the Warrior-Gene.

In conclusion - and with this last study - we show that a Jewish Origin or ANY Variety Ashkenazi or Sephardic is NOT Likely the Origin for the MAO-Low Activity Variants/Alleles.

EASTERN INDIAN OR 'TRUE' INDIAN (SOUTH ASIAN) ORIGIN???

East Indians and Indians in general are not necessarily Aggressive Peoples - but some aspects of their culture promote HIGH Stress even if they strive greatly to PREVENT and ALLEVIATE that Stress.

This "Genetic-Testing-Environment" should make a Perfect Storm to set forth an IMPACT of those with abnormal gene variants in India; such as the "Warrior-Gene" or MAO-L Gene [!]. Although - most variants studied in Indian-populations indicate are the "Split-Type" and many times the High-Activity Type [!].

That Perfect Storm never occurs in India - not in a Magnitude STUDIED, at least.

...And not in America 'neither.

This - coupled with the fact that South Asian DNA is pretty unique with minimal inter-racial co-mingling and reproduction with those of other 'Opposite' Genetic Background suggest that this MAO-A Gene Variant defined in Science as the "Psycho Gene" or "Warrior Gene" by many publications does NOT Originate in India or South Asia.





MIDDLE-EASTERN "PERSIAN" ORIGIN???

The Genetic Crossover between Mongols and the Persian Empire is SIGNIFICANT - both INWARD and OUTWARD Migration and Haplogroup Tests from (CLOSE) Genghis Khan's Relatives have revealed significant shared aspects with regard to ORIGIN - with some Arabic Populations.

Iranian (New Persian) Mitochondrial-DNA Studies also emphasizes similar findings.

Y-DNA Tests on Iranians show (Paternal) DNA is more similar with other Arabic Populations with a bit less genetic diversity.

Abdelmalek Bayout - an Algerian National with mixed Algerian/Arabic Ancestry had his sentenced reduced - much like Albertani in Italy's finest courts - and he accepted the offer with Glee. Why? Because he too, has the "Warrior-Gene" [!].

This again, supports a Racial-Density Paradigm among those populations/Ethnic Groups that correspond with Mongol inhabitance/DNA.

...It does NOT Support an Arabic Origin for the "Warrior-Gene" simply because the Middle-East/West Asia does not have the HIGHEST Density/Frequency of this Gene Variant - and it would if it was the Origin.


BACK TO AFRICA AND ASIA - THE FINAL CONCLUSION AND MOST LIKELY RELATIONSHIP

If we were to ASSUME there is ONE common Origin for all MAO-Warrior Gene variants - we would have to examine the *MOST LIKELY* continuum - many East Africans genetically come from somewhere in Asia [!] [!!] - and East Africa has an EVEN HIGHER incidence of the MAO-Warrior-Gene than North Africa [!]

There are also studies like this one - which connect other regions of Africa to an Asian origin.

Other "Near-East" and various Asian-DNA Mixtures have been tied by specific Haplogroups to Families in Africa. 

Thus - the high INCIDENCE amongst BOTH Africans and Asians - more than any other Ethnic Group - besides the Maori - who are ALSO of Asian descent - indicates ASIA - particularly EAST ASIA as the MOST LIKELY Origin for the "Warrior-Gene".

Although SOME Studies CLAIM that it is the other-way around [!], and East Asians were originally African - this claim was largely DEBUNKED Harshly and Assuredly by a later study.

A Population study on different families of different Ethnic Background in AMERICA also shows significant Asian-Crossover in these populations - when examining TOTAL Haplogroup studies of both Y-DNA and Mitochondrial DNA.

DEBATE: Not many East Asians are exceptionally VIOLENT or AGGRESSIVE - BUT they do make GREAT Business Decisions and score very high on traits like "good judgement" and "fast decision maker" [!] which are associated with the Warrior-Gene positive individuals [!].

...There is a whole lot of Asian-Organized Crime in East Asia though [!] and these particular Organized Crime Syndicates tend to be the 'most ruthless' [!].

Of course, some articles like this one give good evidence that East Asian Criminal Gangs are marked mainly by their Highly Intelligent and Sophisticated nature.

CRITICAL-THINKING: Its also possible (even PROBABLE) that the Asians that possess the "Warrior-Gene" are less affected by it because they don't (generally) have other "risk-factors" such low Socio-Economic status, low IQ coupled with HIGH Testosterone and Childhood Trauma/Abuse. [!]

Although in some cases the MAO-Variants may affect IQ themselves [!].

AFRICA: Since Africa remains a Central Discussion in relation to the Warrior-Gene and their mishmash of Risk Factors in their home countries and America - generates the potential to really RELEASE the Warrior-Genes impact upon Society - it remains TRUE that for many, it is the African aspect AND Origin (DNA-Wise) that perpetuates the notoriety of this gene-mutant.



OTHER PROBLEMS WITH DETERMINING (CONCLUSIVELY) A Warrior-Gene Origin.

  1. Not Everyone inherits EVERY Single aspect of their Parents DNA. Not all DNA is inherited equally, often Brothers and Sisters inherit some parts of some relatives DNA [31] and this has been reflected in the differences of DNA-Percentages between Siblings [32].
  2. Another Report also states that Genetic Identity influences individuals Proclivity to sharing or not-sharing data with organizations that collect such data for Informational or Practical Genetic Research and that genetic diversity is *often* hard to determine because of Point 1 [33].
  3. There are several different forms of the "Warrior-Gene" - each with their own unique sequence; their own unique "Deletion": The 3-Repeat Form [34] the 2-Repeat Form [35] and the 5-Repeat Form [36].
  4. The "Warrior-Gene" isn't always studied in relation to "Aggressive" or even "Risk-Taking" behavior - sometimes the low-activity alleles are simply studied in relation to non-aggressive but self-destructive behavior such as Smoking Behavior [37] - because the MAJORITY of studies on MAO-A related genes are NOT demographic/statistical studies and because it has relevance to other aspects of Behavior and a (generally) non-linear relationship with Aggression...not much time has been taken by National/Global sources to determine an origin - or an exact "response" that preempted Positive Selection.
  5. Other studies such as this one - have concluded that HIGH-Activity MAO-A alleles can cause/provoke "Externalizing Behaviors" and this is in (nearly) direct contrast to the Majority of Research causing the Nickname for low-activity Variants; the "Warrior-Gene".
  6. Thus - some Scholar's and Researchers - due to the "Contradictory" evidence do not find much ambition in the Mission of finding the Origin of the Warrior-Gene - and not much of the PUBLIC is too enthused by it - at least at this point - further diminishing motivations to embark on The  Journey of (Seemingly) Endless Research which may never come up with a CONCLUSIVE Answer...and not EVERY POPULATION is interested in contributing to Science's Excessive Requirements.



MAO-A: The “warrior” gene. (DISCUSSION) (In The Key Of BLOG)



Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation. (PNAS)

Working memory brain activity and capacity link MAOA polymorphism to aggressive behavior during development. (Translational Psychiatry)

Health, inequality and the politics of genes. (The New Zealand Medical Journal)


MAORI alarm at gene project. (REVIEW/NEW ZEALAND HERALD)

The Warrior Gene: Genetics and Criminology. (Crime Traveler Blog)

The Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genetic Predisposition

to Impulsive Violence: Is It Relevant to Criminal Trials? (NeuroEthnics/Matthew L Baum)

Dangerous DNA: The truth about the ‘warrior gene’. (NEWS SCIENTIST)

Effects of the MAOA gene and levels of exposure to violence on antisocial outcomes. (British Journal of Psychiatry)

Musashi: a translational regulator of cell fate.
Hideyuki Okano, Takao Imai, Masataka Okabe

Journal of Cell Science 2002 115: 1355-1359;

Tourette Syndrome Genetics

 The Southern and Eastern Europe Initiative

A Polymorphism of the MAOA Gene is Associated with Emotional Brain Markers and Personality Traits on an Antisocial Index. (NATURE)

Transylvania: A Walk in Dracula's Shadow. (Romania:Natural And Cultural Blog) (Romania Tourism Blog)

       ***OTHER MISCELLANEOUS SOURCES***


The Irish Psyche And Sigmund Freud (Irish American Mom)

Keep losing your temper? Blame it on the angry gene. (FIONA MACRAE:Daily Mail UK)

The Warrior Gene: 5 COMMON MYTHS DEBUNKED. (Aaron Gardner @GENE FOOD BLOG)

My foray into personalized genetic testing (part two).
By Dr. Ronald Hoffman

Genetic background of extreme violent behavior. (NATURE PUBLICATIONS)

Aggression and MAO-A. (Genetics 564 Course at UW-Madison)

A Comparison of Perceptions of Love, Guilt, and Anger in Ireland and the United States: Implications for Counseling. (WILEY ONLINE LIBRARY) (Counseling and Values)

Do You Have Viking Blood? (CJ Adrien VIKING BLOG)

The human Y chromosome: an evolutionary marker comes of age. (NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS)

Europe needs many more babies to avert a population disaster. (THE GUARDIAN)

A genetic contribution from the Far East into Ashkenazi Jews via the ancient Silk Road. (NIH/PubMed)

In/Tags: where did the warrior gene come from, warrior gene risk assessment, warrior gene better risk, warrior gene better risk assessment, warrior gene and romans, warrior gene and celts 2018, warrior gene statistics scandinavia

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