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Saturday, February 7, 2015

Does Serotonin raise Dopamine, or lower it? Does dopamine raise serotonin, or lower it? INTERACTIONS With Dopaminergic-Serotonergic Systems Explored

HOW DOES DOPAMINE AFFECT SEROTONIN, OR HOW DOES SEROTONIN AFFECT DOPAMINE?
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It's not so simple as to say dopamine raises serotonin, or serotonin raises dopamine - but if you're gonna go with such an assumption - you should at least hear the ODDS THAT SEROTONIN WILL RAISE DOPAMINE ARE INCREDIBLY LOW!!!

  • Dopamine inhibits dopamine at the D(2) receptors expressed as autoreceptors, whereas the post-synaptic D(2) receptors play a separate role in initiating endocrine responses and in controlling spasms and jerky movements.

  • Dopamine at D(2) and D(3) receptors interact with AMPA-glutamate pathway, and have secondary effects on GABA-ergic neurons.

  • Dopamine D(4) are similar to the two above, but may have a distinct or more specific action in depression and also on behavioral phenotypes.

  • Dopamine D(1) and dopamine D(5) stimulate locomotion (an indice of anti-depressant effects & general QOL scores) .
QuoteNow here's the biggest point to remember, no matter which neurotransmitter you are talking about. 
ALWAYS KNOW WHETHER THE RECEPTOR IS POSITIVELY OR NEGATIVELY COUPLED TO G-PROTEINS AND THUS ADENYLATE CYCLASE...


BECAUSE.....

If it's positively coupled it will have stimulatory effects and will increase basal and active metabolism as well as increase thyroid output and dopamine production. It will also signal HOMEOSTATIC mechanisms particularly signaling to serotonin 5-HT(1) autoreceptors to then decrease in moderation, the level of cAMP that was just increased...hence , this second messenger's all - important role in determining WHICH receptors get to handle the homeostatic feedback and partially determining the NET RATE of serotonin synthesis and activity. AKA that which is released in the blood stream or into the synapse BY THE MEANS of indirect autoreceptor activation that is the result of activating the conditional second messenger system of CYCLIC ADENOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE

If it's negatively coupled then we have an opposite array of effects, seeing instead of stimulation, we get depression, a decrease in dopamine synthesis and activity, and instead of 5-HT inhibitory signaling we get the potential CROSS-ACTIVATION of type 2 like serotonin receptors.

Additionally, those negatively coupled HAVE A TENDENCY to induce histamine and nitric oxide release, as well as GABA activity.

NOW LET'S GO BACK TO DOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN...IF YOU'VE ABSORBED THE ABOVE; then you're good!

Serotonin inhibits dopamine activity and release the type 1 receptors, as well as type 2, type 6 and type 5A receptors.
Whereas 5-HT3/4 have mixed effects , in some studies showing an enhancement in frontal lobe transmission, and in hippocampus mixed effects TRENDING WITH A DECREASE.

Therefore, all in all, there is a PROPENSITY & HIGHER LIKELIHOOD of serotonin to INHIBIT dopamine, than to raise it.
The NET effect of ANY neurotransmitter, especially MONOAMINES - is based on which receptors are available and the NET RATIO of heterodimized pairings and coincidentally, the ratio of NEGATIVE;POSITIVE FEEDBACK.

In other words, it simply comes down to more or less, if there is more positively coupled G-protein receptors being activated or more negatively coupled receptors being activated by premise or by consequence!

OR, IN EVEN SIMPLER TERMS....HOW MUCH CYCLIC AMP ONE HAS IS THE PRIMARY DETERMINANT TO TOTAL NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY AND THE BALANCE BETWEEN PARASYMPATHETIC AND SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY THAT DETERMINES CENTRAL HOMESTASIS AND THUS THE PLAUSIBLE EXISTANCE OF DEPRESSIVE DISORDERS AND/OR THE TENDENCY TO SUCCUMB TO SUCH DISORDERS!


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